Deep drawing of stainless steel sheet
La deep drawing It is the process of deformation of metal sheets to obtain a product or semi-finished product. This is possible by using a punch, a die to radially draw the metal into a forming die.
In any case, the mechanical action of the punch is combined with the hollow matrix. The process then applies tensile and compressive forces that transform the shape under high pressure. In general, this retains the thickness of the sheet material. In addition, it produces repeatable components of high accuracy.
It is considered that deep drawing is a cost effective process for manufacturing applications. Above all, for those that require high precision and large volumes of parts. On the other hand, it also works well for lightweight material products that require a significant amount of strength.
For more information on various deep drawing metal stamping capabilities or to request a quote, you can contact us, preferably by email.
Frequently asked questions about deep drawing
What does deep drawing mean?
Put simply, the deep drawing It is a manufacturing process in which a tubular material, usually steel or aluminum, is expanded to form a part with a larger internal diameter.
The procedure is performed using a stuffer. That is, a tool in the shape of an inverted cone that is inserted into the tube. Subsequently, it is expanded by using a hydraulic press. Generally, this type of technique is used to manufacture parts with specific internal diameter characteristics. For example, joints, interconnecting pipes, etc.
How do we know the maximum deep drawing limit?
To know the maximum depth that a material can be deep-drawn, is usually performed a deep drawability test. The purpose of the test is to determine the degree of drawability of the metal sheet. For this, a XNUMX cm x XNUMX cm square sample and a rounded-tip piston are usually used.
The starting point is the point at which the tip of the piston makes contact with the plate. Then constant pressure is applied until the plate begins to crack. At this point, the distance the piston has advanced is then measured. This distance gives us the measurement of the embutibility of the material.
This test is common when working with new materials of different alloys.
What type of parts are made in deep drawing?
To get an idea, you could make a bathtub. Or a large dimensions pot.
Deep drawing parts have more difficulty than stamping parts.
The materials that allow this type of deep drawing must be carefully selected.
matricats is your company to make metal parts with deep drawing
What are deep drawing presses like?
They are bigger than those of stamping because they need a longer path.
What is the presser used for?
The pressers prevent or control the movement of the piece while deep drawing.
They are essential when working with thin pieces. Or also when deep drawing or large diameter.
Thanks to the pressers, wrinkles or folds in the deep-drawn material can be avoided.
They are of a fixed, flat or slightly inclined type.
There are also pressure or brake pressers that are used when it is intended to stretch the sheet to reduce its thickness.
Can deep drawing be made with aluminum sheet?
It is possible, and in fact it is done. Although it has different degrees of difficulty. Aluminum is easier to crack than other materials.
How is the excess material from the drawing trimmed?
It will depend on the part and the process, but one option is to use a 3d laser. Thus the cut is clean and the end result is optimal.
The use of these 3d lasers in the metal 4.0 industry is more and more frequent.
The use of robotic arms is also imposing in this industry 4.0, either for welding or for cutting.
Since when has deep drawing been carried out?
Deep drawing has a history of use dating back several centuries.. The process has been used since ancient times to make metal objects. Formerly, it was used to make armor or utensils, among others.
Although there is no precise date to determine from when the deep drawing, it is believed that this process has been used for a long time. Above all, in the manufacture of metal objects. Even since then, a drawing tool was already used to expand a piece of metal and give it the desired shape.
However, the development of technology and specialized machinery allows the deep drawing process to be carried out with greater precision and automation. In this sense, its use and applications in modern industry are increasing. It is estimated that, starting in the XNUMXth century, it began to be used more widely in different industries, improving its precision and productivity.
What are dies in deep drawing?
In the context of manufacturing, dies are tools used in processes of stamping, drawing, forging, etc.. The die is a molded tool that takes the shape of the object to be made. The material is placed in the matrix. Then a force is applied so that the material assumes the shape of the die.
In the drawing process, dies are used to expand the tubular material and give it the desired shape. There are two types of dies, cutting dies, and stamping dies.
Cutting dies are tools used to cut or punch material into a specific pattern or shape.. The process is carried out by applying a great force on the matrix and the material. In this case, there are various types of cutting dies. Among the most important we have:
- Punch Cutting Dies: are used to cut materials by using a punch that moves through the die and the material.
- stamping dies: they are similar to punching dies. However, instead of a punch, a press with a stamping die is used.
- Drawing dies: They are used to cut and shape tubular material by using a drawing die.
The stamping dies are tools useful for shaping material by applying a mechanical force. The stamping process is carried out using a press and a die that has the desired shape of the object to be manufactured.
Subsequently, the material is placed in the die and a force is applied by the press. Said labor makes the material adopt the shape of the matrix. In the same way as in the previous case, there are several types of stamping dies:
- hot stamping dies: are used to shape the material at high temperatures.
- cold stamping dies: are suitable for molding the material at room temperature.
What are the advantages of deep drawing
To tell the truth, this process has a lot of advantages. In fact, its benefits go far beyond what we are used to knowing. In this sense, some of the advantages of this procedure are the following:
- The precision: the deep drawing It allows manufacturing parts with a high degree of precision in terms of internal and external dimensions.
- High production: the process is fast and semi-automated. Undoubtedly, this is what allows high performance in the production of parts.
- Flexibility in materials: Can be used with a wide variety of materials, such as steel, aluminum, copper or plastics, among others.
- material savings: When expanding the tubular material, only the necessary amount of material is used. So it is much simpler to reduce costs and waste.
- Fortaleza: the parts produced by deep drawing have a high tensile strength and bending stress.
- Finishes: in some cases, the process allows to achieve desired surface finishes. In others it may require laser cutting and polishing.
- Versatility: The process is applicable in a wide variety of industries, from automotive, aerospace, medicine or electronics, among others.
- complex shapes: drawing makes it possible to manufacture parts with complex geometries. Also, internal and external geometries with precision.
What are the disadvantages of deep drawing?
La deep drawing It is a high precision manufacturing process. However, it also presents some difficulties:
- Costs: the investment in machinery and specialized tools can be high at the beginning, although the few units are profitable.
- Design and development of tools: Designing and developing the necessary tools and dies for the process requires a high level of expertise. On the other hand, it is essential to have personnel with knowledge in the field.
- complex process: The process requires great precision in the alignment of the tools. In addition, precise control of the drawing force.
- Limitations on the size of the pieces: This method has limitations in terms of the size of the parts that can be made. Not all providers are prepared to perform large deep drawing parts.
- limited materials: Some materials are not suitable to be subjected to the deep drawing process. Mostly, this is due to its brittleness or low tensile strength.
- Difficulty rectifying mistakes: If any errors occur during the process, they can be difficult to rectify. Then the part is likely to be discarded. In other cases, it will even be necessary to start the process over again.
What materials are suitable for deep drawing?
In the drawing process there are a variety of materials that can be used. Some of the most common are the following:
- Maple: It is one of the most used materials in deep drawing. This is due to its high mechanical resistance and its thermal stability.
- Aluminum: It is a light and resistant material. In general, it is used in applications where high corrosion resistance and low weight are required.
- Copper: is an electrical and thermal conductive material, used in electrical and electronic applications.
- special alloys: In some cases, depending on the requirements of the final product, special metal alloys can be used, for example, to have better resistance.
It is important to mention that not all materials are suitable for the deep drawing process. For example, brittle materials or materials with low tensile strength are not suitable for being subjected to this process. In addition, high precision control of processing conditions is required to avoid errors or problems in the process. The latter is key to guaranteeing good quality in the finished parts.
What kind of parts are manufactured with deep drawing?
This technique is useful for making various types of pieces. Basically, you can find some like:
- Joints: used to connect pipes or conduits. In addition, the joints manufactured by deep drawing are precise and resistant.
- interconnecting pipes: used to connect pipes of different sizes and diameters. They are common in the petrochemical, aerospace or automotive industry, among others.
- machinery components: deep drawing is used to manufacture machine components such as containers, lids, protections, chassis...
- auto parts: It is useful for manufacturing automotive components, such as tanks, boxes...
- aerospace parts: are used to manufacture components for the aerospace industry. Among the most common we have joints, interconnecting pipes and machinery components, among others.
- Medical products: Deep drawing is used to make catheters or tubes.